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Full Wave Rectifier

FULL WAVE RECTIFIER- Center-Tapped and Bridge Rectifier

welcome to this article, In this article, we are going to learn about FULL WAVE RECTIFIER- Center-Tapped and Bridge Rectifier as we Learned about Half-wave rectifiers previously.

Today we are going to study about Full Wave rectifier and their types. so before going to start let me tell you if you have not learned my article on Half Wave rectifier so you must check out that you will understand the basics of rectifiers circuits. so let’s get started.

What is Rectifier Circuit?

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A rectifier circuit is that circuit which performs conversion of AC voltages to DC Pulsating Voltages. So how this Rectifier Circuit Works? I mean how the Full Wave Rectifier circuits work? and why we use Full Wave Rectifier circuits? let’s start our discussion.

A Half-Wave rectifier has very few applications, But the full wave rectifier is the most commonly used rectifier. why is it so? it is because it is mostly used in every type of dc power supplies.

In this section, you will use the same concepts that you learned previously in half-wave rectification article, we will take that concept and expand it to full-wave rectifier working. You will learn about two types of full wave rectifiers.

  1. Center-Tapped Full Wave Rectifier.
  2. Bridge Full Wave Rectifier.

Working of Full Wave Rectifier:

A Full Wave rectifier allows current in unidirectional (one-way) through the load during the entire of the input cycle, whereas a half-wave rectifier allows current through the load only during one-half of the cycle.

The result of full-wave rectification is an output voltage with a frequency twice the input frequency and that pulsates every half-cycle of the input, as shown in given picture below.
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Full wave rectifier block diagram

The number of +ve alternations that make up the full wave rectified voltage is twice that of the half-wave voltage for the same time interval. The average value, which is the value measured on a dc voltmeter, for a full-wave rectified sinusoidal voltage is twice that of the half-wave, as shown in the following formula:
Full Wave rectifier output voltage

Working of Center-Tapped Full-Wave Rectifier

A Center-Tapped rectifier is a type of full wave rectifier that uses two diodes connected to the secondary of a center tapped transformer, as shown in Figure given below. A Centre Tapped Transformer is one whose secondary number of turns are grounded to provide two isolate circuits in secondary of Transformer.

Mostly the Word Centre Tapped is used whenever the circuit is grounded in its center. The input voltage of  Centre Tapped Full Wave Rectifier is coupled through the transformer to the center-tapped secondary. Half of the total secondary voltage appears between the center tap and each end of the secondary number of turns as shown in given figure.

Center Tapped Full wave rectifier

For a positive half-cycle of the input voltage:

The polarities of the secondary voltages are as shown in Figure (a). This makes forward-biases diode D1 and reverse-biases diode D2. The path for current is through Diode 1 and the load resistor, as indicated.

For a negative half-cycle of the input voltage:

The voltage polarities on the secondary are as shown in Figure (b). This makes reverse-biases D1 and forward-biases D2. The current path is through D2 and RL, as indicated. Because the output current during both the positive and negative portions of the input cycle is in the same direction through the load, the output voltage developed across the load resistor is a full-wave rectified dc voltage, as shown below.

Center Tapped Full wave rectifier

Read More: What is the Duty Cycle?

Effect of the Turns Ratio on the Output Voltage

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The output voltage of a center-tapped full-wave rectifier is always one-half of the total secondary voltage less the diode drop, no matter what the turns ratio.output voltage of Center Tapped Full wave rectifier

Peak Inverse Voltage

PIV for Center Tapped Full wave rectifier

Each diode in the full-wave rectifier is continuously changing from forward-biased and then reverse-biased. The maximum reverse voltage that a diode can handle is the peak secondary voltage Vp(sec). The peak inverse voltage across either diode in a full-wave center tapped rectifier is:

PIV for Center Tapped Full wave rectifier

Working of Bridge Full Wave Rectifier

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The bridge rectifier is a best full wave rectifier which uses four diodes that connected as shown in Figure below. When the input cycle is in going for positive alternation as shown in part (a), the diodes D1 and D2 are in forward-biased and they conduct current in the direction as shown.

A voltage is generated across Load Resistor that looks like the +ve half of the I/P cycle. During this period of duration, diodes D3 and D4 are reverse-biased.

When the input cycle of bridge full wave rectifier is going in the negative cycle as in (b), the diodes D3 and D4 are also going in forward bias and they conduct current in the same direction through Load Resistor as during the +ve half-cycle.

when the negative half-cycle is coming for the diode, D1 and D2 are going in reverse-biased. A full-wave rectified output voltage appears across RL as a result of this action.

Bridge Full Wave Rectifier operation

Bridge full wave rectifier Output Voltage

A bridge rectifier with a transformer-coupled input is shown in (a). During the +ve half-cycle of the secondary voltage, diodes D1 and D2 are forward biased. we are neglecting diode drop here.

The same is true when D3 and D4 are forward-biased during the negative half-cycle.

output voltage of Bridge Full Wave Rectifier

As you can see in Figure (b), two diodes are always in series with the RL during +ve and -ve half-cycles. If these diode drops are taken into account, the output voltage is.

output voltage of Bridge Full Wave Rectifier

Bridge Full Wave Rectifier circuit

Peak Inverse Voltage for Bridge Full Wave Rectifier

Since the output voltage is ideally equal to the secondary voltage, If the diode drops of the forward-biased diodes are included as shown in Figure 2–40(b), the peak inverse voltage across each reverse-biased diode in terms of Vp(out) is

PIV of Bridge Full Wave Rectifier

The Peak Inverse Voltage rating for Bridge Full wave rectifier’s diodes is less than that required for the center-tapped configuration.

If we neglect the diode drop, the bridge rectifier requires diodes with half the PIV rating of those in a center-tapped rectifier for the same output voltage.

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Bridge Full Wave Rectifier

This was all about for FULL WAVE RECTIFIER Center-Tapped and Bridge Rectifier if you like this article then appreciate our efforts by doing comment thanks for visiting. check daily for more best articles relative studies and technology.

Also Read:

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  4. What is Photo-diode- How it works?
  5. Game Changer Tunnel Diode, Working and its Operations.
  6. What is Varactor Diode, How it works?
  7. What is Diode Clipper and How they work?
  8. What is Diode Clamper Circuits and How they Work?

Diode Clamper- Positive, Negative Clamper Working and Applications

This article is based on the diode clamper circuit, working of positive and negative clamper circuits and the applications of clamper circuits using different waveforms and circuit.

In our earlier articles, we learn about diodes and the working of diodes and the applications of the diode as half wave rectifier, full wave rectifier, clipper circuits. And in this article, we are moving forward to learn about the clamper circuit and their working.

What is the Diode Clamper?

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A Diode Clamper (DC restorer) is a circuit which changes the dc reference of an ac signal. Basically, a clamping diode circuit(or a clamper) essentially adds a d.c. component of the ac signal.

In Diode Clampers it is important to understand that the shape of the original signal is same it is not changed in the output just the reference of waveform is shifted vertically, this is achieved with clamper circuit.

There are two types of Clamper Diode circuits:

  1. Positive Clamper Circuit
  2. Negative Clamper Circuit

Positive Diode Clamper:

If a vertical shift is achieved in Positive direction i.e. if the signal is pushed up so that the negative peaks falls on the zero level then the clamper is called a positive diode clamper.

Negative Diode Clamper:

The negative Diode clamper does the reverse i.e. it pushes the signal downwards so that the positive peaks fall on the zero level.

The following point is important to understand in Diode Clampers:

The clamping circuit does not change the peak-to-peak or r.m.s. value of the waveform. If you measure the input voltage and clamped output with an a.c. voltmeter, the readings will be the same.


Working of Positive Diode Clamper:

To understand the working of positive diode clamper we are applying negative half cycle of the input voltage. When the negative input voltage is applied, the diode is forward biased, allowing the capacitor to charge to almost the peak of the input (Vp(in)-0.7). shown in fig (a).

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Positive clamper During negative cycle

Positive Clamper Circuit Diagram


Just after the negative cycle, the diode is reverse bias and capacitor which was charged during the negative cycle that has to now discharge. Which means all the voltage will be summed producing double of Vp(in) at load. Here the amplitude is same just output is clamped. i.e if input Vp was 5v then the clamped output is nearly 10 practically (10-0.7), as shown in fig (b).

Positive Clamper Output

Working of Negative Diode Clamper:

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Reverse the diode and apply positive half cycle first, during positive half cycle of input the diode is forward bias and the capacitor is charging up to (Vp(in)-0.7) after the positive cycle when a negative cycle of input is received the diode is reverse bias which means the charged capacitor has to discharge so the voltage will be summed (vp+vc1) and the summed voltage will appear at output (Load resistor).

Hence such type of clamper is known as Negative Diode Clamper which clamps or pushes the output waveform downwards to the reference.

Negative Clamper Circuit

Negative Clamper Circuit

Negative Clamper Output

Negative Clamper Output

Also Read: Difference Between Clipper and Clamper

Video of Clamper Diode Circuit:

Applications of Diode Clamper Circuit:

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  1. Clampers are mostly used in test equipment, sonar, and radar systems.
  2. They are widely used for their common application of voltage doubles or voltage multipliers.
  3. Clampers are mostly used for removing the distortions
  4. In the transmitting and receiving circuitry of television a clamper is used to stabilize to define sections of the luminance signals to preset levels.
  5. Clampers are used to provide protection to the amplifiers from large errant signals.
  6. They are commonly used for the analysis of synchronized signals from the composite visual signals.

This all about Diode Clamper- Positive, Negative Diode Clamper Working Circuits, If you get the concept and learned something new today then do not forget to leave a comment for us and share our work with your friends’ thanks a lot.

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