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Introduction to Electronic Communication

In this article we will cover Introduction to Electronic Communication, We will also cover basic terminologies of Electronic communication and we will try to make it useful for you.

Introduction to Electronic Communication

Communication means exchanging information from one place to another, it is what Human beings do to convey their emotions, their thoughts, ideas and feelings to one another. Communication is happening from the beginning of humankind.

Most Humans communicated through the spoken words or with their gestures and postures (Nonverbal communication). Later written communication was developed.

Humans wrote letters to one another and eventually invented newspapers and books. Although the bulk of huge of information is still oral, a huge volume of information is exchanged by means of the written word.

Human communication has faced two barriers in all time; language barrier and distance barrier.

  • When humans of different tribes, races, and nation come together, they often find that they do not speak the same language. This language barrier continues today. But it can be overcome as humans are learning new languages day by day.
  • Communication at long distances is also another big barrier, most communication, in the beginning, it was limited to face-to-face conversation. However, for long-distance communication humans uses signals with drums, horns or smoke signals.


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Other early forms of long-distance communication were lighting a signal fire, waving a flag (semaphores), but despite all these attempts of long-distance communication, transmission distance was limited.

If the signal could be launched from a hill, mountain or high towers, the distance of several miles could usually be achieved only.

Human communication took a huge turn in the late 19th century when electricity was discovered and its many applications were explored. The telegraph was invented and the telephone and the radio were discovered.

It was the time when an exchange of information took a great leap forward.

Important Milestone in History of Communication are Given Below:


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An Electronic Communication, such as Telephone, Radio, and Television, have increased our ability to share and convey information of long-distance. Today they are the major part of our lives.

Despite these basic types of long-distance communication platforms, now we have internet, we write E-mails to communication, we have social media platforms like Google, Facebook, and Yahoo. These all types of communication platforms have not replaced the old telephone, radio or television but they have simply added a new way for people to interact with one another.

It is hard to imagine what our lives would be like without the knowledge and information that arrive from around the world by electronic communication.

Ours is an information society, and a key part of it is communication. Without electronic communications, we could not access the available information in a timely way.

The so-called information superhighway of the future is an electronic communication technology.

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The Elements of an Electronic Communication System:


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All electronic communication system has three basic elements, Transmitter, Medium or channel and a Receiver.

In real Human or Source generate a signal, that contains the information and that signal is sent to the transmitter which transmits the information over a communication channel. And then the message is picked by the receiver and receiver gives that information to the desired destination say human.

In this process. A noise is always added to the information through the communication channel. A noise may be due to environmental effects, temperature, or not proper working of an instrument.

block diagram of electronic communication systems

Transmitter:

The transmitter is the collection of electronic components or a circuit. Which is designed to convey the information into a suitable electrical form for communicating with the channel.
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It may be a simple microphone as most radio uses.

Communication Channel:

The communication channel is the medium by which the information is sent from one place to another.

As a voice signal uses air medium for face-to-face communication. As that an electronic communication uses an electronic medium for sending information from one place to another.

For an Electronic communication, a medium may be the simple pair of wires which transmit the information signal which is taken form microphone.

On the other hand, a medium may be a wireless or Radio, Radio makes use of electromagnetic spectrum where signals are communicated from one point to another.

Receiver:

The receiver is also another electronic circuit, which accepts the transmitted information from the channel and converts it back into a human understandable form.

A receiver may be the Speaker or complex electronic receiver.

Noise:

A Noise is random, undesirable electrical energy that enters the communication system through the communication channel and interface with transmitted Information Signal and attenuates the information signal.


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Noise may be generated by the thermal radiation of electronic components, improper environmental conditions can also cause the noise signal. Although such noise signals are the very low-level signal. But they produce more serious problems in electronic communication.

For the most part it cannot be completely eliminated, however, it can be reduced on some level.

Source of information: Communication Electronics (Principal and Applications) by… Louis Frenzel
Also Read:
  1. Types of Electronic Communication (Simplex, Duplex and Half Duplex)
  2. Practical Applications of Simplex and Duplex Communication
  3. What is AM Modulation? – Need of Modulation
  4. Modulation Index, | Depth of Modulation | Percentage Modulation
  5. What is Sideband? Single Sideband Modulation, DSB-SC, and Vestigial Sideband
  6. Difference Between TDM and FDM
  7. Greek Alphabet Letters and Symbol

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Practical Applications of Simplex and Duplex Communication

In this article, we will cover different practical applications of simplex and duplex communication.

Simplex Communication means one-way communication.

Duplex communication means two-way communication.

Applications of Simplex Communication:


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  1. AM and FM radio broadcasting.

Stations broadcast music, news, weather reports, and programs for entertainment and information. these all are the type of simplex communication because information travels in only in one direction.

  1. Digital RADIO.

There is both satellite and terrestrial. Radio programming is transmitted in digital format.

  1. TV broadcasting.

Stations broadcast entertainment, informational, and educational programs by radio. these all are also examples of one-way communication.

  1. Digital television (DTV).

Radio transmission of television programming is performed by digital methods, both satellite and terrestrial, e.g., high definition television (HDTV) and Internet Protocol Television (IPTV).

  1. Cable television.

Movies, sports events, and other programs are distributed to subscribers by fiber-optic and coaxial cable.

  1. Fascimile.

The printed visual material is transmitted over telephone lines. A facsimile or fax machine scans a document and converts it to electronic signals that are sent over the telephone system for reproduction in printed form by another fax machine. Faxes can also be sent from a computer.

  1. Wireless remote control.


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This category includes a device that controls any remote item by radio or infrared. Examples are missiles, satellites, robots, toys, and other vehicles or remote plants or stations. A remote keyless entry device, garage door opener, and the remote control on your TV set are other examples.

  1. Internet of Things (IoT).

The monitoring or control of remote devices, appliances, and other items in a home, office or other facility is usually accomplished by a combination of wireless and Internet connectivity.

  1. Navigation and direction-finding services.

Special stations transmit signals that can be picked up by receivers for the purpose of identifying the exact location (latitude and longitude) or determining the direction and/or distance from a station. Such systems employ both land-based and satellite stations.

The services are used primarily by boats and ships or airplanes, although systems for cars and trucks are being developed. The Global Positioning System (GPS) which uses 24 satellites is the most widely used.

  1. Telemetry.


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Measurements are transmitted over a long distance. Telemetry systems use sensors to determine physical conditions (temperature, pressure, flow rate, voltages, frequency, etc.) at a remote location.

The sensors modulate a carrier signal that is sent by wire or radio to a remote receiver that stores and/or displays the data for analysis. Examples are satellites, rockets, pipelines, plants, and factories.

  1. Radio astronomy.


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Radio signals, including infrared, are emitted by virtually all heavenly bodies such as stars and planets. With the use of large directional antennas and sensitive high-gain receivers, these signals may be picked up and used to plot star locations and study the universe.

Radio astronomy is an alternative and supplement to traditional optical astronomy.

  1. Surveillance.

Surveillance means discreet monitoring or “spying.” Electronic techniques are widely used by police forces, governments, the military, business and industry, and others to gather information for the purpose of gaining some competitive advantage.

Techniques include phone taps, tiny wireless “bugs,” clandestine listening stations, and reconnaissance airplanes and satellites.

  1. Music services.

Continuous background music is transmitted for doctors’ offices, stores, elevators, and so on by local FM radio stations on special high-frequency subcarriers that cannot be picked up by conventional FM receivers.

  1. Internet radio and video.

Music and video are delivered on a computer via the Internet. a most common way of one-way communication.

Applications of Simplex Communication

Applications of Simplex Communication

Applications of Duplex Communication:

  1. Telephones.

One-on-One verbal communication is transmitted over the vast worldwide telephone networks employing wire, fiber optics, radio, and satellites.

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  1. Cordless telephones provide short-distance wireless communication for cord-free convenience.
  2. Cell phones provide worldwide wireless communications via handsets and base stations and the wired telephone system. In addition to voice communications, cell phones facilitate e-mail, Internet access, instant message service, video, and games.
  3. Internet telephones, known as voice over the Internet protocol (VoIP) phones, use high-speed broadband services (cable, DSL, wireless, fiber) over the Internet to provide digital voice communications.
  4. Satellite phones use low-earth-orbit satellites to give worldwide voice service from any remote location on earth.

 

  1. Two-way radio.

Commercial, industrial, and government communication are transmitted between vehicles, handheld units, and base stations.

Examples include police, fire, taxi, forestry service, trucking companies, aircraft, marine, military, and government.

  1. Radar.

This special form of communication makes use of reflected microwave signals for the purpose of detecting ships, planes, and missiles and for determining their range, direction, and speed.

Most radar is used in military applications, but civilian aircraft and marine services also use it. Police use radar in speed detection and enforcement.

  1. Sonar.

In underwater communication, audible baseband signals use water as the transmission medium. Submarines and ships use sonar to detect the presence of enemy submarines.

Passive sonar uses audio receivers to pick up water, propeller, and other noises.

Active sonar is like an underwater radar with which reflections from a transmitted ultrasonic pulse are used to determine the direction, range, and speed of an underwater target.

  1. Amateur radio.

This is a hobby for individuals interested in radio communication. Individuals may become licensed “hams” to build and operate two-way radio equipment for personal communication with other hams.

  1. Citizens radio.

Citizens band (CB) radio is a special service that any individual may use for personal communication with others. Most CB radios are used in trucks and cars for exchanging information about traffic conditions, speed traps, and emergencies.

  1. Family Radio Service.

This is a two-way personal communication with handheld units over short distances (, 2 mi).

  1. The Internet.

Worldwide interconnections via fiber optic networks, telecommunications companies, cable TV companies, Internet service providers, and others provide World Wide Web (WWW) access to millions of websites and pages and electronic mail (e-mail).

  1. Wide-Area Networks (WANs).

Worldwide fiber-optic networks provide long-distance telephone and Internet services.

  1. Metropolitan-area networks (MANs).

Networks of computers transmit over a specific geographic area such as a college campus, company facility, or city. Normally they are implemented with fiber-optic cable, but may also be coaxial cable or wireless.

  1. Local-area networks (LANs).

Wired (or wireless) interconnections of personal computers (PCs), laptops, servers, or mainframe computers within an office or building for the purpose of e-mail, Internet access, or the sharing of mass storage, peripherals, data, and software.


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Applications of Duplex Communication

Applications of Duplex Communication

 

for more detail about types of communication..

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Source of information: Communication Electronics (Principal and Applications) by… Louis Frenzel
Also Read:
  1. Introduction to Electronic Communication
  2. Types of Electronic Communication (Simplex, Duplex and Half Duplex)
  3. What is AM Modulation? – Need of Modulation
  4. Modulation Index, | Depth of Modulation | Percentage Modulation
  5. What is Sideband? Single Sideband Modulation, DSB-SC, and Vestigial Sideband
  6. Difference Between TDM and FDM
  7. Greek Alphabet Letters and Symbol

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