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Difference between hardware and software

Difference Between Hardware And Software

A major difference between hardware and software is that Hardware is a physical device that is capable of performing tasks and execution based on software whereas Software is a set of instructions given to a computer or other hardware to perform a certain task. There is the various number of difference between hardware and software and in this tutorial, we will cover them one by one.Difference between hardware and software

Difference Between Hardware And Software

Difference between Hardware and Software Comparison Chart

The major difference between hardware and software with a comparison chart is as follows.

Definition Hardware is a physical device that is capable of operating tasks and executions based on the softwareSoftware is a set of instruction that is given to the computer to perform operations
TypeHardware may be Input device, output device, memory storage device.Software is two types System software and Application software
ExamplesMonitor, mouse, Keyboard, Hard drives, routers, printers, scanners, video cardsChrome browser, antivirus, windows, Adobe Photoshop, Microsoft Office, Adobe reader, VLC media player
DevelopmentHardware is made-up of electronic components.Software is developed by writing instructions in a programming language.
ReplacementIf Hardware is damaged, it can be replaced with new one.If Software is damaged, it can be replaced with its backup copy.
AffectedHardware is not affected by a virus.Software is affected by a virus.
Inter dependencyHardware can not perform any operation or task without software.Software can not executed without hardware.
FailureHardware wear out over time.
Software does not wear out over time.
however; bugs can affect it.
NatureHardware is a physical device, you can touch a hardware.Software is a logical you can not touch the software.


The hardware and software are the essential components of the computer and therefore both depend on each other. It is therefore advised to all the readers to go through this tutorial to get maximum benefit and to clear your concepts regarding the common question of what are the major differences between hardware and software.

In this tutorial, you will get complete detail related to the topic of “differentiate between hardware and software”.

What is Hardware?


Hardware is any physical device that is capable of performing tasks and operations based on the software. Hardware is made up of electronic components such as transistors. Hardware is tangible and it can be touched in real-time. The hardware is what makes a computer system work, without any hardware, a computer would not perform any function, and software would have nothing to run on. Hardware and software work together to get work done in the meantime. Software tells the hardware, What task to perform and How to perform. It is only the combination of the software as well as hardware which makes up a good system.

Difference between hardware and software

Hardware can be classified as input devices (Mouse/Keyboard), output devices (Monitor), secondary storage devices (RAM/ROM), and internal components (ALU, Registers). Hardware in a computer system is the Mouse, Keyboard, Monitor, Processor, RAM, Hard drives, Printer, Scanner, and anything you can see and touch within the device.

The failure of the hardware is random. The failure in hardware can be due to bad manufacturing, sudden voltage spikes or environmental factors such as temperature variations, dust, and pollution. Once a Hardware is damaged, it can be replaced with new hardware or it can be repaired. The hardware is replaced or upgraded in order to make the system faster and better.

similarities between hardware and software

What is Software?

what is the difference between hardware and software

The software is a set of instructions given to a computer to perform certain tasks and operations. The software is an important part of the computer it tells the hardware what task to perform and how to perform. It is much easier to alter than the hardware components, hence it is called “soft”. The Software is developed by writing instructions in a programming language and it is not tangible and cannot be touched in real-time.

The failure of the software is systematic. The failure in software can be due to the failure of the application, virus, or other bugs. Once the software is damaged, it can be replaced with its backup copy. The software is upgraded by reprogramming the instructions

There are several types of software the main software programs that are commonly used are as follows:

Application Software: 

System Software: 

  • System software allows controlling, operating, and extending the processing capability of a computer. System software provides an interface between the hardware and the end-user. The system software is necessary to run hardware and application software.


What are Examples of Hardware and Software?


  • Example of application software is as follows. Chrome browser allows browsing websites and the internet. Media Player allows videos and audios to play, Microsoft Word allows for writing documents.
  • Example of System software is as follows. Windows, Andriod, Drivers, C, C++, Java, Compiler, etc.

Hardware vs software


  • Example of Hardware is as follows. Mouse, Keyboard, Monitor, Printer, USB, CD Drive, RAM, Hard Drive, Joystick, Scanner, DVD, CPU, Motherboard, Etc.

What is the Difference Between Hardware and Software in Points


The key points that are related to the software are as follows.

  • A set of instructions given to the computer is called as software.
  • You cannot feel or touch the software.
  • The software is developed by writing instructions in the programming language.
  • The software controls the computer with the programming instructions.
  • If the software is corrupted or damaged, its replaced with the backup copy.
  • The software is easily affected by malicious programs such as computer viruses.
  • The software can be transferred/moved from one computer to another, electronically through a network.
  • A user can make many new duplicate copies of the software.
  • The update or newer version of the software can be made by re-writing instructions.
  • you cannot throw software across the room because of it’s not a physical thing.
  • The software is intangible.


The key points that are related to the hardware are as follows.

  • Any Physical device that is capable of performing tasks is called as hardware.
  • You can feel, see, and touch hardware.
  • Hardware is constructed/developed using physical materials such as electronic components.
  • The computer is a hardware device, it performs operations based on programmed software.
  • If the hardware is damaged, one can replace it with a new one or its alternative one.
  • Computer viruses or malware does not affect Hardware.
  • Hardware cannot be transferred/moved from one place to another electronically through the network.
  • A user can not make any new duplicate copies of the hardware.
  • Hardware can break off if you drop it.
  • Hardware is tangible.


Hardware and software are two life-giving components in any digital circuitry, electronic or computing field.  Hardware & Software Both dependents on each other and one can not operate without each other. The user should, therefore, have knowledge of both hardware & software in order to get the optimal performance of the system. The user should also go through this tutorial to get a deep insight into the subject.

On the last note: Besides all the hardware and software difference shown above in this tutorial, they both are essential for each other.

If you like our article, then do share this article with your friends and also comment down below for your queries and appreciations.

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Common emitter amplifier

Common Emitter Amplifier, BJT Transistor Common Emitter Amplifier

In this article, you will be able to learn and understand the Common Emitter Amplifier its Working, characteristics, and their applications.

In our previous discussions, we learned that a transistor can be configured in three different modes, the most widely used transistor configuration is Common-Emitter Configuration, and this is due to the reason, that a common emitter configuration provides good voltage and current gain.

What is the common emitter amplifier?

Common Emitter Amplifier has Emitter terminal as common for both input and output. Input is applied to the Base-Emitter terminal and output is taken from Emitter-Collector terminal.

 common emitter amplifier

The base-emitter junction is forward bias and emitter-collector junction is reverse bias, it is because a transistor must remain in an active region in order to perform amplification.

In order to understand the working of Common Emitter amplifier let’s first understand how does a transistor work as an amplifier?

How Transistor Amplifies?

When a weak AC signal is given to the base of the transistor, a small base current IB starts flowing. Due to transistor action, a much larger (β times the base current) a.c. current flows through the collector load RC. As the value of RC is quite high (usually 4-10 kΩ), therefore, a large voltage appears across RC.

Thus, an applied weak signal at the base circuit appears in amplified form in the output of collector terminal. It is in this way that a transistor acts as an amplifier.

Common Emitter Amplifier Working:

 As shown below a Common Emitter amplifier is made up of voltage divider bias, the input is Base-Emitter terminal and output is Emitter-Collector collector. During Positive cycle of input, a sinusoidal AC signal is applied at the input terminals of a circuit that cause the forward bias of base-emitter junction hence VBE is increased resulting in an increase in IB.

The collector current Ic is increased by β times with the increase in IB, hence VCE is correspondingly decreased.

common emitter amplifier working

common emitter amplifier working


formula of vo=vcc-icrc

Thus in a Common-Emitter amplifier, a positive going signal is converted into a negative going output signal i.e..180° phase shift is introduced between output and input signal and it is an amplified version of an input signal.

Practical Common Emitter Amplifier Circuit

In order to perform amplification with a common emitter amplifier, we must consider the basing, capacitor and different resistors values.

Figure down below shows the circuit of practical common emitter amplifier.


common emitter amplifier circuit

common emitter amplifier circuit


  • C1 and C2: These two capacitors are placed in the input and output of an amplifier; they are used to couple one circuit with another hence they are called as coupling capacitors.
  • CB: This capacitor is known as bypass capacitor which is used to bypass the AC signal to ground. It is very helpful because any noise signal that may be presented in AC signal will be passed out from bypass capacitor.
  • R1 and R2: These are places in between of collector to the base terminal they provide biasing to the transistor hence they are known as biasing resistors.
  • RC: RC is placed in the collector terminal in order produce faithful amplification. It places an important role in the operation of amplification (VC-VCC-ICRC)
  • RE: This RE resistor is placed in the emitter terminal of a transistor, and it is useful to control the gain of an amplifier.

Common Emitter Transistor Characteristics:

  • It has Large Voltage and Current Gain.
  • It has hence large power gain.
  • It has input to output phase shift of 180°.
  • It has moderate input and output impedance.

The voltage gain of Common Emitter Amplifier:

  • The voltage gain of Common Emitter amplifier is the ratio of output voltage to the input voltage.
  • Here output voltage is referred to as ΔVC and input voltage is referred to as ΔVB.
  • Av=β Vc/vb.

The current gain of Common Emitter Amplifier:

  • Current gain in CE amplifier is the ratio of output current to the input current. In CE configuration the current gain is denoted by greek symbol beta.
  • the output current is referred to as Ic and input current is referred to as Ib.
  • β=Ic/Ib

Input Impedance of CE Amplifier: 

The input impedance is also an important parameter in CE amplifier, because when a one CE amplifier drive another amplifier circuit then the output of one amplifier is input for another amplifier.

In CE amplifier input impedance is around 1kΩ-2k, input impedance values changes with respect to circuit configuration usually CE amplifier has input impended in between mentioned values.

Zin = R1 || R2 | | Zin (base)

Output Impedance of CE amplifier:

The output impedance of the CE amplifier is the resistance looking in at the collector and is approximately equal to the collector resistor. The output impedance of CE amplifier is around 50k-70k.

Rout = RC

Input characteristics Of Common Emitter 

Input characteristics curve of a common-Emitter amplifier is the curve between IB and VBE whereas VCE is constant.

 input characteristcis curve of common emitter amplifier

Output characteristics of Common Emitter

Output characteristics curve of a common-Emitter amplifier is the curve between IC and VCE whereas IB is constant.

output characteristcis curve of common emitter amplifier

Applications of Common Emitter Amplifier:

why common emitter amplifier is widely used?

Common Emitter amplifier configuration is widely used due to its advantage of moderate current and voltage gain.

  • It is used in Audio Amplifiers
  • It is used in Microphones, RADIO, and Music Players
  • It is used in the Frequency generation circuit to increase the strength of the input signal.
  • It is used to increase the speed of Fans, Motors, and Timer circuits.

Advantages of Common Emitter Amplifier:

Common Emitter Amplifiers is most widely used amplifier than the Common Base amplifier and Common Collector amplifier because:

  1. An Ideal amplifier must have very low input impendence, and CE amplifier has very low input impendence.
  2. An Ideal amplifier must have very high output impendence, and CE amplifier has very high output impendence.
  3. It provides 180° phase shift. Or we can it is inverting amplifier.
  4. The current gain and voltage are moderate.

Disadvantages of Common Emitter Amplifier:

  • In the CE amplifier, there is high thermal instability.

Also, read:

  1. Common Base Amplifier, BJT Transistor Common Base Amplifier
  2. Common Collector Amplifier, BJT Transistor Common Collector Amplifier
  3. What is the Difference Between NPN and PNP Transistor
  4. Transistor configurations, Common Emitter, Common Base, Common Collector, and Applications
  5. Transistor Biasing, Self Bias, Emitter Bias, Voltage Divider Bias, and applications
  6. Introduction to BJT Transistor.


In Common Emitter Amplifier, Input is applied to B-E Junction and Output is taken from E-C terminal, here emitter terminal is common for both input and output.

It is a widely used amplifier circuit because it provides good current gain and good voltage gain and it is also known as inverting amplifier because it gives 180° phase shift from input to output. It is widely used in audio amplification and signal amplification circuits.

PhotoDiode- Working, Operation and Applications | Easy Explanation |

This new article is based on the PhotoDiode? Working, Operations, and  Applications.

In our last articles we have learned about diodes, working, and operations of diodes and also learned about the applications of diode as a half wave rectifier, clipper, and clamper circuits, But this is not only the applications of Diode, numbers of diodes are manufactured for various applications in this series we have covered Zener Diode, Light Emitting Diode and now we are going to learn about Photodiodes.

What is Photodiode?

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A Photodiode is a reverse-biased PN junction in which reverse current increases when the junction is exposed to light.

It is sometimes known as Light-Detector, Photo-Sensor or Photo-Detector.

The more the light falls on the PN junction the more reverse current it produces. It is directly proportional to the intensity of light. This means that greater the intensity of light on the PN junction of a Photo-diode, the greater will be the reverse current in the Photodiode.

Working of Photodiode

When light (photons) falls on the PN junction, the energy from photons is imparted to the atoms in the junction. This will create more free electrons and holes in the junction. These additional free electrons will increase the reverse current. As the intensity of light on the PN junction increases, the reverse current also increases.

 “In other words, as the incident light intensity increases, the resistance of the device (photodiode) decreases”.

Symbol of Photodiode:

The symbol of a photodiode is very similar to the normal PN junction diode except that it contains arrow that is striking the diode to represent light or photons.

  • A photodiode has two terminals:
  1. Cathode
  2. Anode.
Symbol of Photodiode

Symbol of Photodiode

Operation of Photodiode:

The circuit has reverse biased photodiode connected, resistor R and D.C supply.

operation of photodiode

 The operation of the photodiode is as under:

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When there is no light in the PN junction of Photodiode, the reverse current (IR) is very small. This is known as dark current. and the resistance due to no light on the PN junction of Photo-diode is known as Dark Resistancedark current of photodiode

When light is exposed on the PN junction of the Photo-diode, there is the transfer of energy from the photons to the junction of Photo-diode. This will create more free electrons (and more holes) as explained in working. These additional free electrons will increase the reverse current up to it becomes maximum and that is known as saturation current.

operation of photodiode

Advantages of Photo-Diode

They are used in many applications because they have numerous advantages:

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  1. They can be used as variable resistance device.
  2. They are highly sensitive to the light.
  3. The speed of operation is very high. The switching of current and hence the resistance value from high to low or otherwise is very fast.
  4. They have the Linear response
  5. They have Small Size
  6. Less costly
  7. They generate very less noise.

Read More: What is the Duty Cycle?

Practical Applications of Photodiode:

There are various Practical applications of Photodiode, but here we will discuss two major applications of Photo-diode.

  1. Alarm circuit using photodiode.
  2. The counter circuit using photodiode.

(i) Alarm circuit using Photodiode.

Given figure shows the use of photo-diode in an alarm system. The light source is used apply light to fall on a photo-diode fitted in the doorway. The reverse current is maximum till the light beam is not broken. If a person passes through the door, light beam gets broken and the reverse current becomes low as the dark current level, as the resulting alarm is sounded.application of photodiode

(ii) The counter circuit using Photodiode.

A photo-diode may be used to count items on a conveyor belt. It is the on of great application of photo-diode, it is used in industries for counting. Given figure shows a photo-diode circuit used in a system that counts objects as they pass by on a conveyor.

application of photodiode 2

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  1. It is used in solar cell panels.
  2. They are used in Compact disc players as a Sensor.
  3. They are used in Smoke detectors to produce sound when smoke is present in an area.
  4. Photo-diodes are used in medical applications for computed tomography, instruments and to analyze samples and pulse oximeters.
  5. Photo-diodes are used for optical communications.
  6. They are used in infrared remote control devices used to control equipment from televisions to air conditioners
  7. They are used in Line Following Robots.
  8. They are used to count the People.
  9. Photo-diodes are used to measure extremely low light intensities.
  10. It is used for exact measurement of the intensity of light in science & industry.
  11. It is used in demodulation.
  12. The photo-diode is used in the logic circuit.

Also Read:

  1. What is the Zener Diode, and How does it work?
  2. Introduction to PN Junction Diode
  3. What is Tunnel Diode, Working, and Operations of Tunnel Diode
  4. What is Varactor Diode, Varicap Diode Working
  5. What is Gunn Diode, and How does it Work?
  6. What is Clipper Diode, Positive, negative, and biased Clipper circuits?
  7. What is Clamper Diode, Positive, Negative, and biased Clamper circuits
  8. Introduction to Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

this is all about Photo-Diode. Working and Operations of the photodiode and  Applications, if you like our post than please comment below. and if you feel any query feel free to contact or comment. Thanks for visit.

what is duty cycle

What is Duty Cycle? | Definition

What is the Duty Cycle?

The Duty cycle is the ratio of time on a circuit when the load is ON compared to the time when the load is OFF.

we can say that “the Duty cycle is the measure of the system’s active time”. Basically, it is measured in percentage (%) that what percent of the load is ON compared to OFF-load.

The Formula of Duty Cycle:

formula of duty cycle

  • Where D is the duty cycle,
  • PW is the pulse width (pulse on or active time)
  • T is the total period of the signal.

Explanation of Duty Cycle:

If a digital signal spends its half of the time ON and the other half OFF, then the digital signal has the duty-cycle of 50%. If the percentage is higher than 50%, the digital signal spends more time in the high state than the low state and vice versa if the duty cycle is less than 50%.

More the duty cycle percentage (%) betters the system operation.

For example: if the duty cycle is 40% it means the load is ON for 40% of the time and OFF for 60% of Time.


Here is a figure that illustrates better about duty cycle:

duty cycle example

  • 50% of Duty-Cycle indicates that the system is active for 1/2 times.
  • 25% of Duty-Cycle indicates that the system is active for 1/4 times.
  • 75% of Duty-Cycle indicates that the system is active for 3/4 times.

How to Calculate Duty Cycle:

The duty cycle of a signal measures the fraction of time that a given transmitter transmits this signal. This fraction of the time determines the total power transmitted by the signal. Signals with longer duty cycles carry more power.

This makes the signal stronger, more reliable, and easily detectable by receiving equipment. Signals with longer duty cycles require less efficient receivers than signals with shorter duty cycles.

Measure the pulse width of the transmitted signal. If you do not know this, connect the signal output to the oscilloscope input. The oscilloscope screen will show a series of pulses oscillating with the frequency of the signal. Note the width in seconds or microseconds of each pulse. This is the pulse width or PW signal.

Calculate the period, or “T”, frequency, or “f” using the formula: T = 1 / f.

For example, if the frequency is 20 Hz, then T = 1/20 with a result of 0.05 seconds.

Calculate the duty cycle, represented by “D,” through the formula D = PW/T.

For example, if PW is 0.02 seconds and T is 0.05 seconds, then D = 0.02 / 0.05 = 0.4 or 40%.


Example of duty cycle

In an automotive electronic fuel injection system, voltage pulses supplied to the fuel injector valve solenoid control the fuel injector valve at a fixed rate of 10 cycles per second, or 10 Hz.

Pulse width modulation allows fuel supplied to the engine to be precisely controlled electronically. The voltage average for each duty cycle is determined by the amount of pulse ON time.

Duty cycled solenoids use a variable duty cycle signal to vary flow or adjust pressure. The longer a solenoid remains open, the more flow and less pressure develops. These solenoids are either feed-controlled or ground-controlled.

Duty Cycle in Electronics:

In Digital Electronics, signals are represented by logic levels of 1 and 0. Logic 1 stands for the presence of an electric signal and 0 in the absence of an electric signal.

For Example:

A Digital signal has a square output (10101010) then the duty cycle for this signal will 50% because the pulse remains high for almost half (1/2) of the period and low for another half (1/2) of the period. Almost every component and system has its own duty cycle value which indicates that it will be operated up to this value of duty-cycle.

Duty Cycle in Electrical:

Electrical Components uses very less duty-cycle to operate as compared to Electronic Components.

   For Example:

Electrical motors use very less duty-cycle. if a motor runs for one out of 200 seconds or 1/200 of the time, then, its duty cycle is 1/200, or 0.5 per cent.


If you like our post “What is the Duty Cycle? Then like and share this post with your friends and if you feel that you have learned something great today than comment below and appreciate the efforts, Thanks

Also Read:
  1. What is Zener_Diode – Working and Applications of Zener
  2. What is LED- Working and Applications of LED
  3. What is PhotoDiode? Working and Applications of PhotoDiode
  4. What is Tunnel_Diode –Working, Characteristics & Applications
  5. What is Varactor_Diode, operations and Practical Applications
  6. What is Diode Clamper Circuits and How they Work?
  7. What is PN Junction Diode, Characteristics, and Applications.
Full Wave Rectifier

FULL WAVE RECTIFIER- Center-Tapped and Bridge Rectifier

welcome to this article, In this article, we are going to learn about FULL WAVE RECTIFIER- Center-Tapped and Bridge Rectifier as we Learned about Half-wave rectifiers previously.

Today we are going to study about Full Wave rectifier and their types. so before going to start let me tell you if you have not learned my article on Half Wave rectifier so you must check out that you will understand the basics of rectifiers circuits. so let’s get started.

What is Rectifier Circuit?

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A rectifier circuit is that circuit which performs conversion of AC voltages to DC Pulsating Voltages. So how this Rectifier Circuit Works? I mean how the Full Wave Rectifier circuits work? and why we use Full Wave Rectifier circuits? let’s start our discussion.

A Half-Wave rectifier has very few applications, But the full wave rectifier is the most commonly used rectifier. why is it so? it is because it is mostly used in every type of dc power supplies.

In this section, you will use the same concepts that you learned previously in half-wave rectification article, we will take that concept and expand it to full-wave rectifier working. You will learn about two types of full wave rectifiers.

  1. Center-Tapped Full Wave Rectifier.
  2. Bridge Full Wave Rectifier.

Working of Full Wave Rectifier:

A Full Wave rectifier allows current in unidirectional (one-way) through the load during the entire of the input cycle, whereas a half-wave rectifier allows current through the load only during one-half of the cycle.

The result of full-wave rectification is an output voltage with a frequency twice the input frequency and that pulsates every half-cycle of the input, as shown in given picture below.
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Full wave rectifier block diagram

The number of +ve alternations that make up the full wave rectified voltage is twice that of the half-wave voltage for the same time interval. The average value, which is the value measured on a dc voltmeter, for a full-wave rectified sinusoidal voltage is twice that of the half-wave, as shown in the following formula:
Full Wave rectifier output voltage

Working of Center-Tapped Full-Wave Rectifier

A Center-Tapped rectifier is a type of full wave rectifier that uses two diodes connected to the secondary of a center tapped transformer, as shown in Figure given below. A Centre Tapped Transformer is one whose secondary number of turns are grounded to provide two isolate circuits in secondary of Transformer.

Mostly the Word Centre Tapped is used whenever the circuit is grounded in its center. The input voltage of  Centre Tapped Full Wave Rectifier is coupled through the transformer to the center-tapped secondary. Half of the total secondary voltage appears between the center tap and each end of the secondary number of turns as shown in given figure.

Center Tapped Full wave rectifier

For a positive half-cycle of the input voltage:

The polarities of the secondary voltages are as shown in Figure (a). This makes forward-biases diode D1 and reverse-biases diode D2. The path for current is through Diode 1 and the load resistor, as indicated.

For a negative half-cycle of the input voltage:

The voltage polarities on the secondary are as shown in Figure (b). This makes reverse-biases D1 and forward-biases D2. The current path is through D2 and RL, as indicated. Because the output current during both the positive and negative portions of the input cycle is in the same direction through the load, the output voltage developed across the load resistor is a full-wave rectified dc voltage, as shown below.

Center Tapped Full wave rectifier

Read More: What is the Duty Cycle?

Effect of the Turns Ratio on the Output Voltage

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The output voltage of a center-tapped full-wave rectifier is always one-half of the total secondary voltage less the diode drop, no matter what the turns ratio.output voltage of Center Tapped Full wave rectifier

Peak Inverse Voltage

PIV for Center Tapped Full wave rectifier

Each diode in the full-wave rectifier is continuously changing from forward-biased and then reverse-biased. The maximum reverse voltage that a diode can handle is the peak secondary voltage Vp(sec). The peak inverse voltage across either diode in a full-wave center tapped rectifier is:

PIV for Center Tapped Full wave rectifier

Working of Bridge Full Wave Rectifier

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The bridge rectifier is a best full wave rectifier which uses four diodes that connected as shown in Figure below. When the input cycle is in going for positive alternation as shown in part (a), the diodes D1 and D2 are in forward-biased and they conduct current in the direction as shown.

A voltage is generated across Load Resistor that looks like the +ve half of the I/P cycle. During this period of duration, diodes D3 and D4 are reverse-biased.

When the input cycle of bridge full wave rectifier is going in the negative cycle as in (b), the diodes D3 and D4 are also going in forward bias and they conduct current in the same direction through Load Resistor as during the +ve half-cycle.

when the negative half-cycle is coming for the diode, D1 and D2 are going in reverse-biased. A full-wave rectified output voltage appears across RL as a result of this action.

Bridge Full Wave Rectifier operation

Bridge full wave rectifier Output Voltage

A bridge rectifier with a transformer-coupled input is shown in (a). During the +ve half-cycle of the secondary voltage, diodes D1 and D2 are forward biased. we are neglecting diode drop here.

The same is true when D3 and D4 are forward-biased during the negative half-cycle.

output voltage of Bridge Full Wave Rectifier

As you can see in Figure (b), two diodes are always in series with the RL during +ve and -ve half-cycles. If these diode drops are taken into account, the output voltage is.

output voltage of Bridge Full Wave Rectifier

Bridge Full Wave Rectifier circuit

Peak Inverse Voltage for Bridge Full Wave Rectifier

Since the output voltage is ideally equal to the secondary voltage, If the diode drops of the forward-biased diodes are included as shown in Figure 2–40(b), the peak inverse voltage across each reverse-biased diode in terms of Vp(out) is

PIV of Bridge Full Wave Rectifier

The Peak Inverse Voltage rating for Bridge Full wave rectifier’s diodes is less than that required for the center-tapped configuration.

If we neglect the diode drop, the bridge rectifier requires diodes with half the PIV rating of those in a center-tapped rectifier for the same output voltage.

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Bridge Full Wave Rectifier

This was all about for FULL WAVE RECTIFIER Center-Tapped and Bridge Rectifier if you like this article then appreciate our efforts by doing comment thanks for visiting. check daily for more best articles relative studies and technology.

Also Read:

  1. A Detailed article on What is PN Junction Diode, Characteristics and Applications.
  2. Well Explained Zener Diode Operations and Characteristics.
  3. What is LED- How Light Emitting Diode Works?
  4. What is Photo-diode- How it works?
  5. Game Changer Tunnel Diode, Working and its Operations.
  6. What is Varactor Diode, How it works?
  7. What is Diode Clipper and How they work?
  8. What is Diode Clamper Circuits and How they Work?

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