Analog Electronics, Diode, Electronics

Voltage Multipliers- Working of Voltage Doubler, Voltage Tripler, Quadrupler

This article is based on the Voltage Multipliers, working of Voltage doubler circuit, voltage Tripler and voltage quadruple and the applications of voltage Multiplier circuits using different waveforms and circuit.

What is Voltage Multiplier?

The voltage multiplier is an electronic circuit that produces the output voltage which has the multiplication factor of two, three or more times greater than the input amplitude of the signal (peak value).

Example: Input voltage is 4vp then if we are using voltage doubler it will be 2*4vp=8vp.

Important Points of Voltage Multiplier:

  • Voltage multipliers provide d.c. the output that is much greater than the peak input a.c. voltage, there is no power amplification.
  • When a voltage multiplier circuit increases the input voltage by a multiplication factor of n, the input current is decreased by the same factor.
  • Thus the actual power output from a voltage multiplier will never be greater than the input power.
  • A Voltage Multiplier uses diodes and capacitors to increase the multiplication factor of output peak voltage.

Types of voltage multipliers

Voltage multipliers are classified into four types:

  • Half-wave voltage Doubler
  • Full-wave voltage Doubler
  • Voltage Tripler
  • Voltage Quadrupler

Half-Wave Voltage Doubler Circuit?

As the name suggests, a half-wave voltage doubler is a voltage multiplier with a multiplication factor of two, which means it will generate output double of the input applied.

Also as its name suggests the half-wave voltage doubler will produce output either in the positive cycle or negative cycle. The half-wave voltage doubler circuit is made up of two diodes, two capacitors, and AC input voltage supply.

Working of Half-Wave Voltage Doubler Circuit

During the positive half-cycle:

Diode D1 is forward-biased and D2 is reverse-biased. Capacitor C1 is charged to the peak of the secondary voltage (Vp) In a practical case, it will be less than (VP-0.7), as shown in part (a).

voltage doubler circuit

During the negative half-cycle:

Diode D2 is forward bias and D1 is reverse biased. Since C2 receives the input voltage and also the voltage of C1 hence C2 is not charged up to 2Vp. And one thing more C1 is also charged because it is connected to an input side of a circuit which means C1 just gave his voltage to C2 also it’s charging its self. Applying Kirchhoff’s law at loop 2 we can calculate output voltage is 2vp as shown in part (b).

voltage doubler circuit

Working of Full-Wave Voltage Doubler Circuit

A full-wave Voltage Doubler is the voltage multiplier circuit which will produce output with a multiplication factor of two, and it will produce output in both cycles which means it will give twice output amplitude in every positive and negative cycle.

During the positive half-cycle:

D1 is forward-biased and C1 charges to approximately Vp, as shown in part (a).

Full Wave voltage doubler circuit

During the negative half-cycle:

D2 is forward-biased and C2 charges to approximately Vp, as shown in part (b). the output voltage 2vp is taken across the two capacitors in series
Full Wave voltage doubler circuit

 

What is Voltage Tripler?

As the name suggests the voltage Tripler is the circuit which will produce the output whose multiplication factor will be triple of an input voltage. By adding another diode and capacitor section into the Half-Wave voltage doubler it will become voltage Tripler circuit.

Working of Voltage Tripler

During the positive half-cycle:

Diode D1 is forward biased and diodes D2 and D3 are reverse biased. Hence, the diode D1 allows Capacitor one C1 to charge it up to Vp.

During the negative half-cycle:

Diode D2 is forward biased and diodes D1 and D3 are reverse biased. Hence, the diode D2 allows C2 to charge up to 2VP. This is because the capacitor C1 is discharged during the negative half cycle.

Therefore, C1 which was charged during positive cycle up to Vp is now discharging into C2 and also C2 is getting Vp from supply due to forward bias of D2 which means C2 is having Charges from both sides supply + capacitor charges which makes it charge up to 2VP.

During second positive half cycle:

Diode D3 is forward biased and diodes D1 and D2 are reverse biased. Diode D1 is reverse bias because charged C1 makes the opposite polarities there and make D1 not to conduct hence the C3 is getting 2VP from the C2 hence C3 is also charged up to 2VP.

Hence C1 and C3 are in series the voltage across these two series capacitors will be equal to triple of the input voltage.

C1=Vp

C3=2Vp

Hence voltage in series are added, C1+C3=3VP.

voltage tripler circuit

What is Voltage Quadrupler?

As the name suggests the voltage Quadrupler is the circuit which will produce the output whose multiplication factor will be 4 times of input voltage. By adding another diode and capacitor section into the voltage Tripler circuits it will become voltage Quadrupler circuit.

Working of Voltage Quadrupler

The action simple just like Voltage Tripler,

During Positive Half Cycle:

D1 is Forward Bias and D2, D3 and D4 are reverse biased, C1 charges due to D1 and store charges up to VP.

During Negative Half Cycle:

D2 is Forward Bias and D1, D3 and D4 are reverse biased, C2 charges due to D2 and it will store charges up to 2Vp (VP of C1 and Vp of Supplied Voltage).

During Second Positive Half Cycle:

D3 is forward Bias and D1, D2 and D4 are reverse Biased. D1 is reverse biased due to opposite polarity capacitor there. And hence C3 will be charged up to 2Vp (due to discharging of C2).

During Second Negative Half Cycle:

D2 and D4 are forward bias and D1 and D3 are reverse biased. Hence D3 is a reverse bias that is why C3 will discharge itself into C4 and it will make C4 charges up to 2Vp. So the total output voltage is the sum of all voltages.

Therefore, D2 and D4 are forward bias it means =C2+C4= 2Vp+2Vp=4Vp

voltage quadrupler circuit

 

Hell yeah ;P

One thing more just to remember that you can increase the voltage up to your required value but the power will remain same which means by increasing the voltage of some factor n the current will be decreased by some factor n.

Applications of voltage multipliers

Voltage multipliers are used in:

Voltage multipliers are used in high-voltage, low-current applications such as cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) and particle accelerators.

Do you know the working of a Diode?

Do you know how clipper and clamper circuit works?

Do you know how LED works?

 

In this article of Voltage Multipliers- Working of Voltage Doubler- Voltage Tripler, Quadrupler, we covered all types of voltage multipliers and learned their workings, if you like our post than comment below and share your views.

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