In this Article, you will learn Very Basic Electrical Terminologies and concepts of Electrical Engineering that will help you in your knowledge. there are some Basic Electrical Concepts and Terminologies

Basic Electrical Concepts

Electron Flow Theory: It defines current as the flow of electrons from negative to positive.
Conventional Current Theory: defines current as the flow of electrons from positive to negative.
DC or Direct Current: current is in one direction only.

DC Signal
AC or Alternative Current: current continually changes direction.


Voltage: It is a difference of potential that generates current, is a force that moves electrons.
electric force(E), electromotive force (EMF).

  • Amount of electrical force that uses how much energy to move a per charge.
  • One ohm is the amount of resistance that limits current to one ampere
    when one volt of electrical force is applied.

Conductor: The have very low resistance(R) , they can conducts with very little applied voltage, copper, silver, aluminum.

Insulator: The have Extremely high resistance(R), they can conduct only when an extremely high voltage is applied, rubber, teflon, mica.


Semiconductor: Midway between conductor and insulator, limits current at a given voltage, graphite, silicon.


Conductivity: The ease with which an element or compound conducts electricity.

  • The fewer valance shell electrons, the easier to force the atom to give up free electrons.
  • The best conductors contain one valence electron per atom.
  • With more atoms per unit volume, a given voltage generate more free electrons.
  • Insulators blocks current, has complete valence shells (8 electrons ), relatively few atoms per volume.
  • Semiconductors’ valance shells are half complete (4 electrons), relatively high number of atoms per volume.

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